Garot C, Schoffit S, Monfoulet C, Machillot P, Deroy C, Roques S, Vial J, Vollaire J, Renard M, Ghanem H, El-Hafci H, Decambron A, Josserand V, Bordenave L, Bettega G, Durand M, Manassero M, Viateau V, Logeart-Avramoglou D, Picart C.

Adv Healthc Mater. 2023 Sep. Epub ahead of print.

DOI: 10.1002/adhm.202301692 

The reconstruction of critical-size bone defects in long bones remains a challenge for clinicians. A new osteoinductive medical device is developed here for long bone repair by combining a 3D-printed architectured cylindrical scaffold made of clinical-grade polylactic acid (PLA) with a polyelectrolyte film coating delivering the osteogenic bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2). This film-coated scaffold is used to repair a sheep metatarsal 25-mm long critical-size bone defect. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of the film-coated PLA material is proved according to ISO standards. Scaffold geometry is found to influence BMP-2 incorporation. Bone regeneration is followed using X-ray scans, µCT scans, and histology. It is shown that scaffold internal geometry, notably pore shape, influenced bone regeneration, which is homogenous longitudinally. Scaffolds with cubic pores of ≈870 µm and a low BMP-2 dose of ≈120 µg cm−3 induce the best bone regeneration without any adverse effects. The visual score given by clinicians during animal follow-up is found to be an easy way to predict bone regeneration. This work opens perspectives for a clinical application in personalized bone regeneration.